Generic Name: Metformin hydrochloride, dosage Form: tablet, film coated, show On This Page, view All. Show On This Page, metformin Description, metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP are oral antihyperglycemic drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes. Metformin hydrochloride diamide hydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. The structural formula is as metformin hypoglycemia shown: Metformin hydrochloride USP is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4H11N5 HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of Metformin.4. The pH of a 1 aqueous solution of Metformin hydrochloride.68. Metformin hydrochloride tablets, USP contain 500 mg, 850 mg, or 1,000 mg of Metformin hydrochloride USP. Each tablet contains the inactive ingredients povidone, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate and magnesium stearate. In addition, the coating for the tablets contains hypromellose and polyethylene glycol. Metformin - Clinical Pharmacology. Mechanism of Action, metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients metformin hypoglycemia with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Its pharmacologic mechanisms of action are different from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Unlike sulfonylureas, Metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with type 2 diabetes or normal subjects (except in special circumstances, see. Precautions ) and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. With Metformin therapy, insulin secretion remains unchanged while fasting insulin levels and day-long plasma insulin response may actually decrease. Pharmacokinetics, absorption and Bioavailability, the absolute bioavailability of a Metformin hydrochloride 500 mg tablet given under fasting conditions is approximately 50. Studies using single oral doses of Metformin hydrochloride tablets 500 mg to 1,500 mg, and 850 mg to 2,550 mg, indicate that there is a lack of dose proportionality with increasing doses, which is due to decreased absorption rather than an alteration in elimination. Food decreases the extent of and slightly delays the absorption of Metformin, as shown by approximately a 40 lower mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax a 25 lower area under the plasma concentration versus metformin hypoglycemia time curve (AUC and a 35-minute prolongation of time to peak plasma. The clinical relevance of these decreases is unknown. Distribution, the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of Metformin following single oral doses of Metformin hydrochloride tablets 850 mg averaged. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins, in contrast to sulfonylureas, which are more metformin hypoglycemia than 90 protein bound. Metformin partitions into erythrocytes, most likely as a function of time. At usual clinical doses and dosing schedules of Metformin hydrochloride tablets, steady state plasma concentrations of Metformin are reached within 24 to 48 hours and are generally 1 g/mL. During controlled clinical trials of Metformin hydrochloride tablets, maximum Metformin plasma levels did not exceed 5 g/mL, even at maximum doses. Metabolism and Elimination, intravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that Metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion. Renal clearance (see Table 1) is approximately.5 times greater than creatinine clearance, which indicates that tubular secretion is the major route of Metformin elimination. Following oral administration, approximately 90 of the absorbed drug is eliminated via the renal route within the first 24 hours, with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately.2 hours. In blood, the elimination half-life is approximately.6 hours, suggesting that the erythrocyte mass may be a compartment of distribution. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, in the presence of normal renal function, there are no differences between single- or multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of Metformin between patients with type 2 diabetes and normal subjects (see Table 1 nor is there any accumulation of Metformin in either group. Renal Impairment, in patients with decreased renal function, the plasma and blood half-life of Metformin is prolonged and the renal clearance is decreased (see Table 1; also see. Contradictions, warnings, precautions, and, dosage AND administration ). Hepatic Impairment, no pharmacokinetic studies of Metformin have been conducted in patients with hepatic insufficiency (see. Geriatrics, limited data from controlled pharmacokinetic studies of Metformin hydrochloride tablets in healthy elderly subjects suggest that total plasma clearance of Metformin is decreased, the half-life is prolonged, and Cmax is increased, compared to healthy young subjects. From these data, it appears that the change in Metformin pharmacokinetics with aging is primarily accounted for by a change in renal function (see Table 1; also see. Warnings, precautions, and, dosage AND administration table 1: Select Mean (S.D.) Metformin Pharmacokinetic Parameters Following Single or Multiple Oral Doses of Metformin Hydrochloride.
What is metformin
See also Warning section. Nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, diarrhea, weakness, or a metallic taste in the what is metformin mouth may occur. If any of what is metformin these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. If stomach symptoms return later (after taking the same dose for several days or weeks tell your doctor right away. Stomach symptoms that occur after the first days of your treatment may be signs of lactic acidosis. Remember that your doctor has prescribed what is metformin this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not what is metformin have serious side effects. Metformin does not usually cause low blood sugar ( what is metformin hypoglycemia ). Low blood sugar may occur if what is metformin this drug is prescribed with other diabetes medications. Talk with your doctor or pharmacist about whether the dose of your other diabetes medication(s) needs to be lowered. Symptoms of low blood sugar include sudden sweating, shaking, fast heartbeat, hunger, blurred vision, dizziness, or tingling hands/feet. It is a good habit to carry glucose tablets or gel to treat low blood sugar. If you don't have these reliable forms of glucose, rapidly raise your blood sugar by eating a quick source of sugar such as table sugar, honey, or candy, or drink fruit juice or non-diet soda. Tell your doctor about the reaction right away. Low blood sugar is more likely if you drink large amounts of alcohol, do unusually heavy exercise, or do not consume enough calories from food. To help prevent low blood sugar, eat meals on a regular schedule, and do not skip meals. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to find out what you should do if you miss a meal. Symptoms of high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) include thirst, increased urination, confusion, drowsiness, flushing, rapid breathing, and fruity breath odor. If these symptoms occur, tell your doctor right away. Your doctor may need to adjust your diabetes medication(s). Stop taking this medication and tell your doctor right away if this very serious side effect occurs: lactic acidosis (see Warning section). A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction : rash, itching /swelling (especially of the face/ tongue /throat severe dizziness, trouble breathing. This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. In the US - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www. In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at). Metformin is the generic name of the prescription medications Glucophage, Glumetza, and Fortamet, used to control blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body does not produce or use insulin normally, which results in high blood sugar (glucose). Metformin works by decreasing the amount of sugar you absorb from food and reducing the amount of glucose your liver makes. It also increases your body's response to insulin. Metformin is in a class of medications called biguanides. It's what is metformin sometimes used along with diet, exercise, and other medications to control blood glucose levels. It's also used to prevent the development of diabetes in people at high risk for the disease, treat polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos and control weight gain that occurs from taking certain drugs. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the medication in 1994. Metformin and pcos (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome).
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Does metformin lower testosterone
You've heard it before: someone does metformin lower testosterone with type 2 diabetes goes on insulin. But how often have you heard the reverse someone with type 1 going on Metformin? Since the launch of, symlin in 2005, it's not uncommon for people to treat their type 1 diabetes with a supplemental injectable medication. But hang around long enough, and you too might get to know someone with type 1 who takes insulin and oral meds, those formerly known as "type 2 only" drugs. Type 1's taking oral meds alongside insulin? To clarify this, I just had to query some experts. Just like in type 2 diabetes, people with type 1 diabetes can sometimes suffer from insulin resistance (when the insulin that's present can't perform it's work properly and Metformin can lower your insulin requirements by helping the body make better use of the stuff. Gary Scheiner, CDE, author, and head. Integrated Diabetes Services in Wynnewood, PA, explained does metformin lower testosterone it this way: "Some of the more creative and aggressive endos are prescribing Metformin for type 1's, particularly if they are overweight or requiring very large basal insulin doses. In addition to having some mild appetite-suppression effects, it will enhance insulin sensitivity by hepatic cells (in the liver) and limit the amount of glucose secreted by the liver. Personally, I think it can be helpful during adolescence as well. As long as the patient does metformin lower testosterone has good liver and kidney function, the side effects and risks are negligible.". I also does metformin lower testosterone learned this: a couple of other uses of Metformin for women to consider are. Pcos (ovary disease) and pregnancy. Kelley Champ Crumpler, RN, who is a diabetes nurse educator and a type 1 diabetic married to an endocrinologist with type 1 diabetes (how's that for keeping it in the family? explained that, although pcos is a cousin of type 2 diabetes, it can occur in women with type 1 diabetes.